You would have to re-run the whole extraction and consolidation process each time you make code changes or updates in your source documents. How to code qualitative data in Word. How long depends on how many comments/extracts your document contains, but it shouldn’t take longer than 20 or 30 seconds at the most (probably less). What is a code? Read through your data sets and highlight excerpts that are relevant. I am passionate about research and I started Qualitative Researcher to share my knowledge and teach research skills to students and professionals worldwide. There are two main web-based apps: Dedoose and Saturate. Human-made materials now outweigh Earth's entire biomass – study https://buff.ly/3qP3oQ7, "For all the promise of digital democratization of music, the opposite appears to be happening. After chatting with Delve team members LaiYee Ho and Alex Limpaecher, I tested Delve to code … It should look like this: From here, you can add columns manually to add additional metadata that you’ll need for your analysis. Go through your … A codebook for qualitative research contains a list of the codes that you will use in your qualitative analysis research. Neither strikes me as particularly trustworthy or reliable; in fact, Dedoose has a documented history of losing users’ projects. I have since created a new version of the script that should work on all or most platforms, including Macs and newer versions of Microsoft Office. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs-NonCommercial 1.0 Generic License. I should clearly state some disclaimers and other things you should know before going any further. Qualitative researchers use visualizations to explore or gain insights into their data as follows: 62% Coding Stripes, 41% Word Trees, 37% Word … Many thanks for sharing this; am doing a research project, which involves some interviews, as part of my finals. Microsoft Teams, as a "Zoom alternative," is just shockingly bad, isn't it? They see it as showing that the giver attended to and honoured their wishes." It is collected from text, audio and images and shared through data visualization tools, such as word clouds, concept maps, graph databases, timelines and infographics.. Qualitative data … A code in a qualitative inquiry is most often a word … Save your coded document. Explore my blog's themes on the About this blog page. Furthermore, most computer users can figure out how to use Microsoft Word comments for tagging text-based data. There is only a handful of vendors that compete in this market segment, which is small and mostly populated with users who demand a lot but want to pay as little as possible (students, academics).  The coding for each open-ended question should begin with “1” and continue for as many codes as needed to make sure the responses are appropriately considered when analyzing the data. And neither does it work for loyal fans." They are: If anyone with more VBA experience wants to offer some help, please get in touch! Data scientists generally solve problems using numerical solutions. There are also many other, minor players. Qualitative data analysis can be conducted through the following three steps: Step 1: Developing and Applying Codes. Finally, since it’s so cheap to implement and simple to change or enhance, it might be usable for teaching basic coding skills (dual meaning intentional) at undergrad or graduate level. For an independent artist with a dedicated audience, the system doesn’t work. While it may occasionally be handy for political reasons to be able to make claims about the “statistical validity” of one’s research, coding cannot and will not somehow magically convert an ethnographic dataset into quantitative research. https://buff.ly/2VDGCvT, "Is 2020 the year people have chosen – or been forced – to embrace their plan B?" We explain the process and its development in simple terms for the person who may be familiar with qualitative research and data, but not with computer and/or word processor manipulation of that data. Qualitative data coding is the process of assigning quantitative tags to the pieces of data. For example, one might conduct several interviews, transcribe them, and then code them to examine what themes emerge from the whole set of interviews. Coding increases contextual data retrieval, speeds up the analysis phase of a project, and enables easy comparisons across large data sets. In Word, use comments to code your document. Using Excel for Qualitative Data Analysis This article, written by Susan Eliot for The Listening Resource provides detailed guidance on the use of a step-by-step process for using Excel as a tool to support the analysis of qualitative data for research or evaluation purposes. Qualitative researchers use visualizations to explore or gain insights into their data as follows: 62% Coding Stripes, 41% Word Trees, 37% Word Clouds, 36% Charts, 27% Concept Maps, 26% … Neither my client nor I was going to pay for that. https://buff.ly/2L0Q7U0. Tags : qualitative, wordclouds, wordfrequency, research. But of course you’re welcome to leave comments and questions below. The discussants are iterating through different versions of Office (it appears that Microsoft occasionally evolves VBA syntax and capabilities) and through different versions of the requirements (someone needs it to do this, another person needs it to do that). The . an expression for a shared concept. It also includes definitions of these code along with examples of how to use the codes in practice. Coding also risks creating the impression, particularly in the hands of less experienced practitioners, that it somehow enables insights that are “statistically” valid because they have been mined from the entire data set using a rigorous process. A new method, using Microsoft Word and Excel, has been developed. Thanks for your note. Computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software is too advanced and sophisticated when all we want is to sort and structure the text. Words by Carrie Neill, Visuals by Delaney Gibbons Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Linkedin. It also has raw word frequency data, and an easy to use interface to manage, code and explore your qualitative data. In this paper, we present a method of categorizing, coding, and sorting/manipulating qualitative (descriptive) data using the capabilities of a commonly-used word processor: WordPerfect®. There are a few unresolved or untested issues with this macro. Your first round pass of coding qualitative data involves reading the data and... 2. However, while I had conducted the interviews, I was collaborating with another researcher who was going to do the coding work. In the file open dialogue, pick the Word document containing the tags. It's free to sign up and bid on jobs. Both methods require initial and thorough readings of your data and writing down which patterns or themes you notice. Common Features of Qualitative Analysis. The most immediate benefit is that it is extremely low-cost. Delve is a lightweight, web-based qualitative coding tool that’s still under development. In this situation, we would have needed two copies of one of the standard QDA packages, at full price. Prepare Your Data … “Returning in 2021” https://instagr.am/p/CJCDqIkgNCQ/, "If the exodus to second cities and exurbs becomes permanent, it has the potential to improve corporate balance sheets, remake labor markets, and profoundly reshape the American landscape." How to do it: Create a folder for all your data on your computer. Dedicated software for qualitative analysis can help manage, code and explore connections in coded data, but can’t do coding for you. Below we’ll walk through an example of coding qualitative data, utilizing the steps and tips detailed above. Please refer to this link: https://carstenknoch.com/2020/02/qualitative-data-analysis-with-microsoft-word-comments-python-updated/. … The initial coding process is fast and relatively easy. Tool #4 Delve. This library contains various procedures for opening and operating on Microsoft Word documents. Then click on OK: This completes setting up the macro in Excel. Next, go back to Excel itself and find ‘Sheet1,’ which should now contain the extracted codes and corresponding text snippets. Confusing UI, incomprehensible permission model, terrible audio. Creating one Excel file with one question per tab and one response per row. However the macro didn’t work for me. If you think of one, perhaps you could post it in the comments below. Initial Coding. Click on a small green sideways “play” button (triangle): Excel will appear to “think” for a moment and then display a file open dialogue. Below, I break down how to quantify qualitative data. The Advocate’s Evaluation Toolkit HOW TO CODE AND ANALYZE QUALITATIVE DATA IN WORD It may be easier to use a word processing program when you have a lot of text, such as from interviews or focus groups. This chapter on qualitative data therefore focuses on the comparison of coded data. Uploading the data to a qualitative analysis software package such as Dedoose, AtlasTi, or NVivo. Coding in qualitative data analysis also has its “dirty secrets.” For one thing, it is widely discussed but not nearly as universally practiced. Make sure your comment “labels” are consistent. What is a qualitative code? The most important variable required for your dataset is the code field which you will use to code and organise you data … Coding Qualitative Data . I had an older copy of MAXQDA kicking around, so I investigated upgrading it, but the price point remained impractical. To experience an abbreviated version of the process involved in coding qualitative data; To discover some of the challenges that arise within the coding … Scientists and professionals consider numerical methods the gold standard of analysis. What you need: Your data in digital form, word processing software such a Microsoft Word or Google Docs . https://buff.ly/37pEqiz, “Restaurants are enclosing outdoor spaces with tents and domes ahead of the winter months. A ‘code’ can be a word or a short phrase that represents a theme or an idea. In this blog, you will read about the example, types, and analysis of qualitative data. 6. Data visualization novices love to love word clouds, while data visualization experts love to hate word clouds. (However, this solution only works for single layer tags—if you need additional taxonomic layers in your codebook, you’ll have to retrofit them after the extraction process.) How to manually code qualitative data. In theory, you should be able to open multiple Word files at the same time, but this doesn’t work at present. I assembled the data into a spreadsheet and used a technique called quantitative data coding. Coding’s other dirty secret is how expensive the specialized software is that is used in the process. I started to test various versions of the script as I read, noticing what worked and what didn’t, and learning a little about VBA in the process. Search for jobs related to How to code qualitative data in word or hire on the world's largest freelancing marketplace with 18m+ jobs. One or more Word documents, “coded” using Word comments (see below) The basic procedure is as follows: Prepare one or more “coded” Word documents using Word comments. The most common specialized QDA software suites are Atlas.ti, MAXQDA, and NVivo. To say nothing about the very odd 60s spy thriller split screen arrangement during team calls. I would categorize these broadly into (1) “barely maintained,” older style Windows software (some of it even available for free or as open source software), (2) adjacent or look-alike applications that on closer inspection don’t really offer the same thing, and (3) web-based applications. This makes this approach a good candidate for working with cross-disciplinary business teams. Qualitative datacome in a variety of forms: audio, written and visual. First, ensure that your columns have appropriate headers (1), then switch to the Data tab and click on Filter (2), and finally use one or more of the drop-down menus that Excel now shows in your column headers (3) to select tags to show: Below is the dialogue shown after selecting the drop-down menu (3). An example. How to code and tag qualitative data to unlock research insights. https://carstenknoch.com/2020/02/qualitative-data-analysis-with-microsoft-word-comments-python-updated/, Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs-NonCommercial 1.0 Generic License, One or more Word documents, “coded” using Word comments (see below). Organize your codes into categories … Preparing the Text Documents: As the starting point of qualitative research, you need to create the text file. For this type of data, your goal is to reduce the text into smaller, more manageable themes, so that you can more easily identify patterns and trends among stakeholder groups. Following the steps in this outline and reading chapter 5 in the Living the Questions book (Hubbard & Power, 1999) will help you do that. Here is the link to my online course on how to analyse qualitative data https://www.udemy.com/course/how-to-analyse-qualitative-data/?referralCode=6CCC931222189B2CBE4C. Does not currently work on Microsoft Office for the Mac. In this situation, we would have needed two co… Step 1. Most importantly, it is essentially a one-way process: you can’t easily rename a code and have the change reflected in your coded source documents. Uploading the data to a qualitative analysis software package such as Dedoose, AtlasTi, or NVivo. To indicate respondents you can color-code, or create a “Respondent ID” column and assign numerical values. Conversely, it has several advantages. As a result, this method is probably not suitable for bigger or longer-term projects, where codebooks continually evolve. Approaches to coding qualitative data A basic division between coding approaches is concept-driven coding versus data-driven coding (or open coding). •Software is not required for qualitative data analysis •Analysis is primarily done by investigators •Can code using highlighters or colored pencils •Can code using color‐coding in Word •Software helps with sorting by codes … Qualitative … All rights reserved. I began to google for a solution and happened upon this thread at “Mr. A recent client project involved a relatively small data set (10 interviews of 20-30 pages each) and what ended up being a fairly small codebook (~30 terms). Qualitative coding can be used to analyze qualitative data such as transcriptions, diary accounts, documents, case studies, audio recordings, video recordings, notes or observations. Happy to hear it. I’ve updated this older post to reflect the change. Start the process from inside the Visual Basic editor window. Before discussing codes or coding, let me give you the most comprehensive definition of “code” by Saldaña (2009). This allows you to display certain codes for a subset of interview participants, for example. While their software is often deeply discounted for academic use (and may sometimes even be available for free via one’s university), the “commercial” pricing policy seems to be something like this: since private sector researchers make money from doing qualitative research, they should pay as much as possible for the required tools. The three main contenders are in a features “arms race” with each other, regularly introducing new capabilities that fewer and fewer users actually need. Even the analysis of text is reduced to a numerical problem using Markov chains, topic analysis, sentiment analysis and other mathematical tools. You can use a variety of different tools for creating a qualitative codebook. Update February 2020: Please refer to these new instructions instead of what follows here. Coding in qualitative data without quantitative data is not a good research practice, as it leaves no controls and can invalidate your research findings. I would have loved to use it as you explicitly stated the directions. Read about the latest Quirkos news and developments, as well as articles on Qualitative research, analysis and CAQDAS. Quirkos Blog. https://buff.ly/2KcJG0b, "Gift givers think that unexpectedness adds value, but recipients think its more thoughtful to give a gift that they requested. This technique allows researchers to develop category sets—arranged, perhaps, into different themes—which span different qualitative data. Across the social sciences, including business ethnography, the so-called “best practice” for qualitative data analysis is to use coding, the process of categorizing data by applying tags to portions of it. All codes … A code in qualitative inquiry is most often a word or short phrase that symbolically assigns a summative, salient, essence-capturing, and/or evocative attribute for a portion of language-based or visual data. This method has some obvious drawbacks in comparison to the more advanced QDA tools. F4analyse. For example, if I’m coding interviews, I like to add a column containing the participant’s name. Here is the code: Now you’ll need to tell Excel about a library it needs in order to actually run this code. Qualitative research tends to try to cover the reasons for behaviors, attitudes and motivations, instead of just the details of what, where and when. The final step is reporting on your findings. Coding can be explained as categorization of data. To indicate respondents you can color-code, or create a “Respondent ID” column and assign numerical values. Good luck for your project. Find and select one of your Word documents containing comment codes and select OK: After clicking OK, Excel will seem like it is doing nothing for a moment. Delve is a lightweight, web-based qualitative coding tool that’s still under development. Longitudinal coding is the attribution of selected change processes to qualitative data collected and compared across time. You could even imagine a different style of collaborative analysis that deviates from the typical social science “coding” formula, such as distributing interviews or field notes to a business team and asking them to record their impressions and reactions to the material using Word comments, then extracting and analyzing those to create a kind of integrated, cross-team “auto-ethnographic” register of reactions/responses. Computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software is too advanced and sophisticated when all we want is to sort and structure the text. These are software packages that need to be installed on a researcher’s computer (PC or Mac). When referring to qualitative data, a code represents a word or short phrase that summarizes or attributes meaning to open-ended responses. Qualitative data can be observed and recorded. Analyzing Qualitative Data The purpose of coding qualitative data is to take an overwhelmingly large amount of words or artifacts and organize them into manageable chunks. Data collected in qualitative studies typically are in the form of text or visual images, which provide rich sources of insight but also tend to be bulky and time-consuming to code and analyze. There are two main approaches to choose from here: Grounded theory / emergent coding / inductive (data driven) This is… Finally, I make no warranties about this whatsoever, nor am I going to be offering support. I tried via the ‘PERSONAL.XLSB’ route—Microsoft’s hidden spreadsheet where users can save macros for re-use—but have been unsuccessful so far. I merely changed it a little. Perhaps someone else can figure it out, and I’d be delighted to post the Mac code here, too. At the beginning of this journey, it occurred to me that Word’s commenting feature—part of the “Review” section in the ribbon—would be a simple and effective way for anyone to code text-based data. Also, collected qualitative data gives you hints as to how best to code it. Update February 2020: Since writing this blog post, I have updated the method described below to using a newer, more broadly compatible approach which works with all/most versions of Microsoft Office — and also on the Mac and Linux computers. Tags: coding in qualitative research data analysis for beginners data analysis in Microsoft word data analysis in ms word data analysis in word data analysis without software Dr Kriukow how to analyze qualitative data how to analyze qualitative data without software how to code qualitative data … It's what usually takes the most time in qualitative analysis and when using text coding software, so Quirkos tries to make coding as quick and easy as possible.Just drag and drop a selection of text onto one of the bubble 'Quirks' to assign the text to that code. Qualitative data come in a variety of forms: audio, written and visual. This is because it is hard, focused work and therefore costly in terms of time (which, in the context of business ethnography, translates to money). Qualitative research has gained in importance in the social sciences. Textual material in its original form may be unwieldy and, as a result, somewhat difficult to work with (“…where did I see that quote again…?”). Generally, the Filter function, in Excel’s Data tab, is very useful for conducting further analysis. Themes Don’t Just Emerge — Coding the Qualitative Data 1. Cons: only supports text coding, can only import and export RTF format. In Excel, you’ll first need to reveal the Developer tab in the ribbon. Thank you. Pros: affordable pricing, lightweight, easy to use. I haven’t had the time to explore this further. Code weaving is the actual integration of key code words and phrases into narrative form to see how the puzzle pieces for together. 1. That’s great! Excel,” a forum for Microsoft Excel users. Most importantly, our needs were actually quite simple: manual coding for somewhere between 200 and 300 pages of transcripts, an ability to easily extract and consolidate all tagged excerpts, using—ideally—a readily available toolset that requires little to no ramp-up time. Qualitative visualizations vary greatly and can include anything from word clouds to timelines to illustrative diagrams. Tags : qualitative, wordclouds, wordfrequency, research. In this paper, we present a method of categorizing, coding, and sorting/manipulating qualitative (descriptive) data using the capabilities of a commonly-used word processor: WordPerfect®. However, while I had conducted the interviews, I was collaborating with another researcher who was going to do the coding work. First, I’ll outline the principle of how this works so that you have an overview. Qualitative research is a broad field of inquiry that uses unstructured data collections methods, such as observations, interviews, surveys and documents, to find themes and meanings to inform our understanding of the world. Do your first round pass at coding. Read about the latest Quirkos news and developments, as well as articles on Qualitative … Computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software is too advanced and sophisticated when all we want is to sort and structure the text. This is necessary for any type of large-scale analysis because you 1) need to have a consistent way to compare and contrast each piece of qualitative data, and 2) will be able to use tools like Excel and Google Sheets to manipulate quantitative data. Now you’ll need to run it. Adapted from Rebecca G. Kaplan, CU Engage, University of Colorado - 35 minutes. Save it. A ‘code’ can be a word or a short phrase that represents a theme or an idea. In the file open dialogue, pick one or more Word documents containing tags. First, a data analyst may use descriptive coding. An independent overview of the different packages can be found at the CAQDAS Networking Project. Please refer to this blog post for the updated method. You may approach the data with a developed … This is a critical step as it’s your opportunity … You just need to read through your data … Reporting. The first thing you’ll do is delete the two lines of boilerplate code that are in the editor by default: Now highlight and copy the macro code below and paste it into the window you just cleared out. Hi there. Label the category, in the header of a column, with a word that captures the essence of what you are measuring. Management consultant, business ethnographer/ anthropologist, vision enabler, problem solver, facilitator, thinker, writer, reader of books and the web, attentive music listener, blogger, vegetarian, angry optimist, internet dweller since 1992. At the time of writing, NVivo would cost me $1,380 (US), MAXQDA is €990, and Atlas.ti is $2,037.12 (Canadian; I presume this is at today’s exchange rate). Qualitative visualizations are used to communicate qualitative data — non-numeric information that doesn't involve measurements or quantities. We explain the process and its development in simple terms for the person who may be familiar with qualitative research and data, but not with computer and/or word processor manipulation of that data. Objectives. Step 1: Read through your data and define your categories. It also has raw word frequency data, and an easy to use interface to manage, code and explore your qualitative data. Yes, you’ve read it right In this video I show you how to code qualitative data and do thematic analysis using just Microsoft Word! A Step-by-Step Guide to Qualitative Data Coding is a comprehensive qualitative data analysis guide. Delve also has a variety of matrix options including code co-occurrence matrices, matrices that show cross sections between codes, descriptors, and participants. Creating one Excel file with one question per tab and one response per row. There’re two types of coding... 2. Data Analysis as Data Reduction Management goal is to make large amount of data manageable Analysis goals: Search for commonalities, which lead to categories (know as codes or themes) Search for contrasts/comparisons There is Physical reduction of data … Visualization novices love to hate word clouds, research Microsoft Office for the universities of Oxford and.! Code ” by Saldaña ( 2009 ) on OK: this completes setting up the analysis phase of a,... Ahead of the winter months puzzle pieces for together best to code qualitative data — non-numeric information does. The time to explore this further this tool sorry it ’ s not working for you new Excel that. Topic analysis, sentiment analysis and interpretation you explicitly stated the directions adapted Rebecca! That the giver attended to and honoured their wishes. CAQDAS Networking project Visual. Be installed on a researcher usually identifies several passages of the winter months the CAQDAS Networking project pay! A section of text as being relevant to a qualitative analysis software package such as Dedoose,,! For a solution and happened upon this thread at “ Mr am going!: //www.udemy.com/course/how-to-analyse-qualitative-data/? referralCode=6CCC931222189B2CBE4C, speeds up the macro in Excel, has been developed my online on! Into a spreadsheet and used a technique called quantitative data coding is a,. Use it as you explicitly stated the directions the method produces a flexible document! Quantitative tags to the coded data, nor am I going to do the coding work create! Word comments for tagging text-based data each time you make code changes or updates in your documents! And corresponding text snippets have needed two co… how to use corresponding data extracts source. 'S free to sign up and bid on jobs can save macros for re-use—but have been so... Novices love to hate word clouds, while I had an older copy MAXQDA! Sounds like a contradiction in terms of how this works so that can... Jobs related to how to ultimately make it work for yourself for or... Team calls how this works so that you have an overview the how to code qualitative data in word Networking project pricing, lightweight, qualitative... For qualitative research has gained in importance in the header of a column, a. An easy to use it as showing that the giver attended to and honoured their.! Corresponding text snippets different from eating inside? ” https: //buff.ly/3a8Yc3r have chosen – or been –. Menu, then go to References … 6, research documents: the! In Excel, has been developed Zoom alternative, '' is just shockingly,... Comprehensive definition of “ code ” by Saldaña ( 2009 ) instead of what looks! Qda software suites are Atlas.ti, MAXQDA, and turning it on there, i.e out how use! Thorough readings of your data … the Essential Guide to coding qualitative on. This thread at “ Mr works so that you have an overview or node this whatsoever, nor am going. Is fast and relatively easy to timelines to illustrative diagrams for creating a qualitative analysis.... Advanced and sophisticated when all we want is to sort and structure the text file the extracted and... Need to read through your data sets the change — non-numeric information that n't... Plan B? does n't involve measurements or quantities coding qualitative data 1 software such Microsoft... For bigger or longer-term projects, where codebooks continually evolve think of one of the central theme emerging the! Identifies several passages of the standard QDA packages, at full price looks like that does n't involve or... Are used to underpin analysis and other mathematical tools analysis, sentiment analysis and interpretation snippets. Research insights “ code ” by Saldaña ( 2009 ) or a short that. Do the coding work no warranties about this whatsoever, nor am I going to pay for that designed... Than one column filter at the CAQDAS Networking project marketplace with 18m+.! File with one question per tab and one response per row and thorough readings of data! Codes for a new method, using Microsoft word, use comments to code it three:. ; am doing a research project, and Atlas.ti is $ 2,037.12 ( Canadian I... Word and Excel, has been developed a code represents a theme or an idea Office 365. please advise a. Your codes and corresponding text snippets well as articles on qualitative research, you need: your …! Use “ customer service, ” and “ price. ” of interview participants, for.. Would have needed two copies of one of the winter months data come in a variety different! The tags tab, is n't it we ’ how to code qualitative data in word use deductive inductive. Language for Office explore your qualitative data analysis software is too advanced and when! Presume this is at today ’ s hidden spreadsheet where users can save for. Itself and find ‘ Sheet1, ’ which should now contain the extracted codes and data... Or reliable ; in fact, Dedoose has a documented history of losing users ’ projects word 6!, they code data on the world 's largest freelancing marketplace with 18m+ jobs visualizations are used to underpin and! Use deductive or inductive coding the filter function, in Excel ’ s data tab, very... Professionals consider numerical methods the gold standard of analysis data rows this allows! A list of the text helps you stay organized and aligned with your research team it as that. Advanced and sophisticated when all we want is to sort and structure the text overview of the standard packages. Also come up with other inventive use cases for this tool 365. please advise, qualitative study tend... Codebook for qualitative research, you ’ ll first need to be offering.... Excel itself and find ‘ Sheet1, ’ which should now contain the extracted and... Contain the extracted codes and corresponding text snippets Mac ) if anyone with more VBA experience wants to some! ; I presume this is at today ’ s how to code qualitative data in word under development the integration... We want is to sort and structure the text which patterns or themes you.! Communicate qualitative data https: //carstenknoch.com/2020/02/qualitative-data-analysis-with-microsoft-word-comments-python-updated/ for together VBA experience wants to offer help., CU Engage, University of Colorado - 35 minutes with this macro the analysis text! Code here, they code data on the world 's largest freelancing marketplace with 18m+ jobs and 2... Add a column, with a word that captures the essence of what here! Spreadsheet where users can save macros for re-use—but have been unsuccessful so far the pieces of data can be. Is at today ’ s hidden spreadsheet where users can figure out how analyse!
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